It's complicated. I think you have to look at these laws as an intersection of the practical and the cultural.
Let's look at two different distinctions you make.
In the US, you can usually make your own beer, mead, or wine, but cannot make hard liquor without a license from BATF, state licenses, tax payments, etc. Exact laws of course vary state by state, but the US tax code contains exemptions for home brewers and wine makers.
Part of the reason here is historical. Liquor is a major tax source, and black market liquor hasn't always been very safe. We hear stories about wood alcohol making people go blind, but the real problems were either accidental heavy metal poisoning or deliberate adulteration with relatively nasty chemicals. In practice methyl alcohol was not a major problem, particularly accidental inclusion of it, as in most concentrations primarily makes the hangover significantly worse (btw, red wine is known for harsh hangovers as are some fruit brandies because of methyl alcohol content). The adulterants have included (and do include in some parts of the world) things like battery acid, caustic soda, and the like.
A second problem of course is safety. In the distilling process, you are dealing the combination, usually, of heating elements or open flames and a liquid that is roughly as flammable as gasolene. While it is quite possible to distil safely, there are generally acknowledged gains health and safety-wise to pushing for a formal economy here.
Wine Tastings vs Beer Tastings
Here laws vary considerably between states. For example, the one part of the liquor code that is explicitly applied to home brewers is an exemption for home brewing competitions. So you can take your beer to a competition without losing the home brewing exemption.
Wine tastings have almost always had some acceptance on the theory that making fine wine has a level of cultural refinement and aesthetic nuance that beer does not (we may find this false but it an attitude --- if you don't believe me, compare reading a wine review with a beer review). The wine culture is different from the beer culture and so they make a different case.
Again laws here vary state by state. However, the argument, I think, is that wine tasting is essential to the sales process, while beer drinkers are less picky on average.
In essence these laws have a practical component particularly where hard liquor is concerned, and a cultural component.